SALSA MLPA P226 SDH probemixCEimproved

application: Paragangliomas (PGL)
region: SDHD 11q23.1, SDHB 1p36.1, SDHC 1q23.3, SDHAF1 19q13, SDHAF2 11q12
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version: D1
sold since: 2018-04-23

item no. description price
P226-025R SALSA MLPA P226 SDH probemix – 25 rxn € 237
P226-050R SALSA MLPA P226 SDH probemix – 50 rxn € 474
P226-100R SALSA MLPA P226 SDH probemix – 100 rxn € 948
EK1-FAM SALSA MLPA EK1 reagent kit – 100 rxn - FAM € 294
EK1-Cy5 SALSA MLPA EK1 reagent kit – 100 rxn - Cy5 € 294
EK5-FAM SALSA MLPA EK5 reagent kit – 500 rxn - FAM € 1355
EK5-Cy5 SALSA MLPA EK5 reagent kit – 500 rxn - Cy5 € 1355

Please note that both a probemix and reagent kit are needed to perform MLPA.

Intended use: The SALSA MLPA probemix P226 SDH is an in vitro diagnostic (IVD)1 or a research use only (RUO) assay for the detection of deletions or duplications in the human SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF1, and SDHAF2 genes, in order to confirm a potential cause and clinical diagnosis for Hereditary Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma Syndrome. This product can also be used for molecular genetic testing of at-risk family members. This assay is for use with human DNA extracted from peripheral blood.

Deletions or duplications detected with the P226 SDH probemix must be confirmed by another technique. In particular, deletions or duplications detected by only a single probe always require validation by another method. Most defects in the SDH genes are point mutations and small deletions, none of which will be detected by MLPA. It is therefore recommended to use this SALSA MLPA probemix in combination with sequence analysis of the SDH genes. This assay is not intended to be used as a standalone assay for clinical decisions. The results of this test must be interpreted by a clinical molecular geneticist or equivalent.

1Please note that this probemix is for In Vitro Diagnostic use (IVD) in the countries specified at the end of this product description. In all other countries, the product is for Research Use Only (RUO).

Clinical background: Paragangliomas (PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumours that originate from neural crest-derived cells. They arise from sympathetic or parasympathetic paraganglia tissues and can be situated in the head and neck region, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Tumours that arise from the adrenal medulla are called pheochromocytomas (PCCs). Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects (for example carotid body enlargement, visible in the neck) or catecholamine hypersecretion. Both parasympathetic and sympathetic PGLs are rare. Estimates of the overall incidence of parasympathetic PGLs range from 1 in 30.000 to 1 in 100.000.

The hereditary PGL/PCC syndromes are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Pathogenic variants in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes, including SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2, cause PGL/PCC and occur in up to 40% of cases. Probes for SDHA are not included in this P226 SDH probemix, but are included in probemix P429 SDHA-MAX. SDH genes are tumour suppressor genes and loss of heterozygosity is a second hit in tumours. SDHD and SDHAF2 demonstrate parent-of-origin effects and generally cause disease only when the pathogenic variant is inherited from the father (Hao et al. 2009, Hensen et al. 2004), with a penetrance of 90% or higher by the age of 70. Mutations in SDHA, SDHB and SDHC are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with no parent-of-origin effect and show a low penetrance (Benn et al. 2006). Mutations in the SDHAF1 gene are a cause of SDH defective infantile leukoencephalopathy (Ghezzi D et al. 2009) and might cause PGL due to the function of SDAF1, but this has not been reported.

Approximately 30% of hereditary PGL/PCC syndrome is caused by pathogenic variants in the SDHD gene, 22-38% in the SDHB gene, 4-8% in the SDHC gene, while for SDHAF2 it is unknown. The majority of mutations in the SDH genes are point mutations and small deletions. It is estimated that around 5-17% of pathogenic mutations in the SDHB, SDHC and SDHD genes is attributed to large deletions/duplications, including the founder mutations: SDHB Dutch founder deletion in exon 3 and the SDHB Spanish founder deletion in exon 1 (Bayley et al. 2005, 2009, Buffet et al. 2012).

More information is available at

Probemix content: The P226-D1 SDH probemix contains 45 MLPA probes with amplification products between 130 and 494 nt. The P226-D1 contains probes for all exons of the SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF1 and SDHAF2 genes. In addition, 13 reference probes are included in this probemix, detecting several different autosomal chromosomal locations. The identity of the genes detected by the reference probes is available online (

This Probemix contains nine quality control fragments generating amplification products between 64 and 105 nt: four DNA Quantity Fragments (Q-fragments), two DNA Denaturation Fragments (D-fragments), one benchmark fragment, and one chromosome X and one chromosome Y-specific fragment. More information on how to interpret observations on these control fragments can be found in the MLPA General Protocol and online at

related products
SALSA MLPA P016 VHL probemix
Contains 9 probes for the VHL gene (two or more probes for each exon).
SALSA MLPA P198 Fumarase deficiency (FH) probemix
Contains one probe for each exon of the FH gene.
Contains probes for most exons (10 of 15 exons) of SDHA and all exons of MAX.

product history
version D1: Several target probes have been replaced, and extra target probes added. Also, three reference probes have been replaced and one added.
version C1: 14 target probes of SDHB/SDHC/SDHD were replaced, one SDHC probe was removed and two additional probes were added for SDHAF1/SDHAF2. Furthermore, seven reference probes are replaced and two added.
version B2: The 88 and 96 nt control fragments have been replaced (QDX2).
version B1: SDHB 4 probes replaced, SDHC 1 probe replaced and 3 probes added, SDHAF1 and SDHAF2 probes added.
version A2: X and Y control fragments have been added at 100 and 105 nt

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